Thursday, 3 September 2015

Eucharistic gift: diversity in Romanesque theologies

Elizabeth Saxon's The Eucharist in Romanesque France: Iconography and Theology (2006) - which catholicity and covenant has just finished reading - offers a great insight into a period of change, debate and development in eucharistic theology and practice. It does seem to suggest that Reformation-era debates concerning the Lord's presence in the Eucharist stand in profound discontinuity with (at least) pre-1215 theology and practice - both in terms of Reformed caution about affirming Christ's sacramental presence, and Tridentine insistence on the necessity of a binding definition of this presence:

It is important not to see a linear development culminating in a definition of transubstantiation in the opening creed of the 1215 Lateran Council ...

This 1215 statement did not define transubstantiation but merely included a term, by then commonly used, in an attempt to assert Christ's presence (not the mode of that presence) against the claims of the Cathars; nor did the Church attempt (then, or between 1215 and the Council of Trent) to force theologians into this path.  At Trent too great an emphasis was placed on Aquinas as defining an orthodoxy which had not, in fact, ever existed.  Macy has effectively demolished these long-held ideas of linearity by demonstrating the diversity of thought in the period both before and after 1215.

That Christ was truly present in the consecrated host was almost universally accepted outside heretical circles, but the nature of this presence was variously defined.  Even the term 'transubstantiation' was not employed by many of those who fully accepted eucharistic change.  Vigorous debate continued on the nature of this mystery and on the effects of the sacrament ...

In assessing the mood of twelfth-century eucharistic piety the ambiguities of substantial change matter less than the recognition of the vast emotional and mental energy that animated the awareness of Christ truly present, in human and divine totality, in the primary sacrament.

Wednesday, 2 September 2015

Defending the Tradition?

More from the 1995 interview with +Rowan, quoted yesterday.  Here it seems as if he might possibly be referring to the 1991 Baltimore Declaration:

Sometimes people think they’re defending the tradition when in fact they go against the grain of much patristic orthodoxy. Look at some of what’s written about the symbolic complementarity of “the” male and “the” female as active and passive, or “ek-static” and receptive. I can’t see Augustine making much of that. Or the way some – especially some conservative U.S. Episcopalians – treat the epithet of “Father” for the first person of the Trinity as not only an absolute and exclusive “given” of revelation, but as really confirming a privilege for masculine terms for God. Athanasius and Nazianzen would, I think, be very startled. 

Tuesday, 1 September 2015

"The sermon is properly a resource for doing theology"

From a 1995 interview with +Rowan:

I do think the sermon is properly a resource for doing theology. I tried to spell out in the introduction to 'Open to Judgment' some of what I thought of the sermon as the moment when reflection on Scripture and tradition meets a contemporary need; out of that resource different things are drawn and stimulated – activated – by the question particular to the occasion. Written sermons, literary sermons, I also said, were now difficult to do, if not a mistake. There are still occasions where they are possible, though. But 95 percent of my preaching is of course quite different – it’s standing in front of a smallish congregation and speaking directly. Ultimately, a good sermon is one that makes you love God more and trust God more. But in the process of helping you love God more and trust God more, it should make that possible love and trust come alive in relation to particular questions or particular crises that an individual or a group may be facing. There’s a lot to be said for it really. I actually like preaching – it’s a bit unfashionable to say it but I do; it’s stretching. 

Monday, 31 August 2015

Europe's crisis of compassion

We must open the heart of our compassion to all the poor and to those afflicted with misfortune, no matter what the cause, in obedience to the exhortation to rejoice with the joyful and weep with the sorrowful.  Since we ourselves are only human, we must set before others the meal of kindness no matter why they need it - whether because they are widows, orphans, or refugees; or because they have been brutalised by masters, crushed by rulers, dehumanised by tax collectors, assaulted by robbers, or victimised by the insatiate greed of thieves, be it through confiscation or property or ship-wreck.  All such people are equally deserving of mercy, and they look to us for their needs just as we look to God for ours.

From Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration 14.

(From the BBC website, a photograph of a father and his sons arriving in Europe, fleeing war and terror in Syria.)

Saturday, 29 August 2015

"Mine inheritance itself"

To another will I hasten to be re-made, if by another I was made. You are my all, for You are my God. Shall I seek a father to get an inheritance? You are my God, not only the Giver of mine inheritance, but mine Inheritance itself. The Lord is the portion of mine inheritance. Shall I seek a patron, to obtain redemption? You are my God. Lastly, having been created, do I desire to be re-created? You are my God, my Creator, who hast created me by Your Word, and re-created me by Your Word.

Augustine on Ps. 143:10.  Ps. 143 is appointed to be said or sung at Evensong on the 29th day of the month in the BCP 1662.

Friday, 28 August 2015

"No need of human words": discovering silence with St Augustine

Words.  Like many others, I've undoubtedly read more words by Augustine than by any other theologian.  And there remain very many words by Augustine for me to read.

In his superb account of another of the Church's greatest theologians, Thomas Aquinas, Denys Turner says of the silence that Thomas choose in the final months of his earthly pilgrimage:

There is no doubt at all that for Thomas all theological speech is in principle grounded in that silence from which it first emerged, and into which it then inevitably falls helplessly back.

In Augustine's Letter 130, to Proba, we can see a not dissimilar realization that the end of the words of theology is the silence that is true prayer, the encounter with the One "who has no need of human words":

Even in the midst of activity we can still pray without ceasing by cherishing our deepest desire.  And note, praying for long is not the same as praying 'with much speaking' as some Christians seem to think.  To be verbose is one thing; to extend prayer in the warmth of a desire for God is quite another ...

To use a lot of words when we pray is superfluous.  But to long for God in prayer, if the desire and concentration persist, is good.  It will necessitate beating upon the door of him to whom we are praying by long and deep stirrings of the heart.  Often prayer consists more in groans than in words, more in tears than in speech.  But God collects our tears; our groaning is not hidden from him who created all things by his Word, and who has no need of human words.

Amongst the many answers to the question 'why read Augustine?', here is one that may not be immediately evident regarding holy Church's greatest theologian.  We do so not to be skilled in the ways of dogmatic theology.  Not to provide answers to our critics.  Not to assure ourselves that Augustine agrees with us.

We do so to be led by his words to the One who does not need our words, to stand before the mystery that is Love in fullness - Trinity - not uttering words, but bringing only our tears and desire.

(The mosaic of St Augustine is 12th century, in the Cappella Palatina of Palermo.  It quite stunningly embodies the truth that we turn to Augustine not first as theologian, but as saint, as lover of Beauty, ever ancient, ever new.)

Thursday, 27 August 2015

"Doubt no more": 1662's 'Amen' and the mystery of the Eucharist

The differences between the 1559 and 1662 BCP are well known.  One of these differences, however, tends to be somewhat overlooked - the seemingly simple 'Amen' at the conclusion of what 1662 was to call the 'Prayer of Consecration'.  

Then the priest standing up, shal say as foloweth: 
 
ALMIGHTY God our heavenly father whiche of thy tender mercye ... who in the same night that he was betraied, toke bread, and when he had geven thankes, he brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying: Take, eate, this is my bodie, which is geven for you. Doe this in remembraunce of me. Likewise after supper he toke the cuppe, and when he had geven thankes, he gave it to them, saying: Drinke ye all of this, for this is my bloude of the new Testament, whiche is shedde for you and for many, for remission of sinnes: doe this as oft as ye shall drinke it in remembraunce of me.

 ¶ Then shall the minister fyrste receyve the Communion in bothe kyndes him selfe ...

 
When the Priest, standing before the Table, hath so ordered the Bread and Wine, that he may with the more readiness and decency break the Bread before the people, and take the Cup into his hands, he shall say the Prayer of Consecration, as followeth.

Almighty God, our heavenly Father, who of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the Cross for our redemption ... who, in the same night that he was betrayed, atook Bread; and, when he had given thanks, bhe brake it, and gave it to his disciples, saying, Take, eat; cthis is my Body which is given for you: Do this in remembrance of me. Likewise after supper dhe took the Cup; and, when he had given thanks, he gave it to them, saying, Drink ye all of this; for ethis is my Blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for the remission of sins: Do this, as oft as ye shall drink it, in remembrance of me. Amen.

a Here the Priest is to take the Paten into his hands:
b And here to break the Bread:
c And here to lay his hand upon all the Bread.
d Here he is to take the Cup into his hand:
e And here to lay his hand upon every vessel (be it Chalice or Flagon) in which there is any Wine to be consecrated.

Then shall the Minister first receive the Communion in both kinds himself ...


Jeremy Taylor's words in his The Worthy Communicant give us an insight into the Laudian mind which led to these changes being introduced in 1662.  Here we can see the 'Amen' being linked to the the priest acting in persona Christi, a role made more evident through the restoration of manual acts (as in 1549):

When the words of institution are pronounced, all the Christians used to say 'Amen;' giving their consent, confessing that faith, believing that word, rejoicing in that mystery which is told us, when the minister of the sacrament, in the person of Christ, says, "This is my body, this is my blood; this body was broken for you, and this blood was poured forth for you; and all this for the remission of your sins." (VII, 7.)

The 'Amen', then, is a confession of faith in the mystery of the Holy Eucharist:

When thou seest the holy man minister, dispute no more, inquire no more, doubt no more, be divided no more; but believe, and behold with the eyes of faith and of the spirit, that thou seest Christ's body broken upon the cross, that thou seest him bleeding for thy sins, that thou feedest upon the food of elect souls, that thou puttest thy mouth to the hole of the rock that was smitten, to the wound of the side of the Lord, which being pierced, streamed forth sacraments, and life, and holiness, and pardon, and purity, and immortality, upon thee. (VII, 6.)

It is another example of the catholic dynamic present in 1662, alongside and in creative tension with its obvious reformed concerns. Once again, it reminds us that how 1662 prays can be as at least as important as what is prayed.  The seemingly simple 'Amen', the restoration of manual acts, the rubric referring to the 'Prayer of Consecration', these do not alter in any significant way what is prayed - but they do have tremendous significance for how 1662 prays the mystery of the Eucharist.  It is the how in the 1662 which very often powerfully embodies catholic rhythms and insights.